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Selecting Edges

Buttons for the selection modes

Edges can be selected in much the same way as vertices and faces - by right-clicking them while Edge Select Mode is activated. Pressing ⇧ Shift while clicking will add/subtract to the existing selection.

Edge Loops

Mode: Edit Mode (Mesh)

Hotkey: AltRMB Template-RMB.png - or ⇧ ShiftAltRMB Template-RMB.png for modifying existing selection

Menu: Select » Edge Loop

Edge loops can be selected by first selecting an edge (vertex or edge selection mode), and then going to Select » Edge Loop. The shortcut AltRMB Template-RMB.png on an edge (either vertex or edge select mode) is a quicker and more powerful way of doing so. More powerful, because you can add/remove loops from an existing selection if you press ⇧ Shift too.
Note, that if you want to select a loop while being in vertex select mode, you still have to perform the shortcut on an edge - while you, for just selecting vertices, would rightclick on a vertex.

An edge loop

Alt on Linux
Alt is on some Linux distros caught by the windows manager. If you see the above shortcut not working, make sure that blender can properly recognize the usage of Alt.

Edge Rings

Mode: Edit Mode (Mesh)

Hotkey: AltCtrlRMB Template-RMB.png - or ⇧ ShiftAltCtrlRMB Template-RMB.png for modifying existing selection

Menu: Select » Edge Ring

Edge Rings are selected similarly. Based on the selection of an edge go to Select » Edge Ring. Or use AltCtrlRMB Template-RMB.png on an edge.

An Edge Ring
Convert selection to whole faces
If the edge ring selection happened in Edge Select Mode, switching to Face Select Mode will erase the selection.

This is because none of those faces had all its (four) edges selected, just two of them.

Instead of selecting the missing edges manually or by using ⇧ ShiftAltRMB Template-RMB.png twice, it is easier to first switch to Vertex Select Mode, which will kind of "flood" the selection. A subsequent switch to Face Select Mode will then properly select the faces.